• Millissa Cheung Faculty of Business & Administration. Hong Kong Shue Yan University




emotional intelligence, perceived control of time, demographic characteristics, problem gambling, Macao


This study has two purposes. First, we aim to identify the demography factors, namely gender, marital status, educational level, age, monthly income, and cognitive factor, namely casino-related job and emotional intelligence are predictive of problem gambling. Second, we propose and test whether perceived control of time over work moderates the relationship between emotional intelligence and level of problem gambling. Data are randomly collected from 310 respondents in Macao. Results of logistic regression showed that respondents who are male, married, have a low educational level, low emotional intelligence, high monthly income, and have a casino-related job have a higher tendency of becoming problem gamblers. In addition, results of moderated regression indicated that the negative relationship between emotional intelligence and level of problem gambling is found more negative when the employees’ perceived control of time over work is low. The implications of the findings are discussed.


Adlaf, E.M. and A Ialomiteanu (2000), “Prevalence of problem gambling in adolescents: Findings from the 1999 Ontario student drug use survey”, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 45, 752-755.

Aiken, L.S. and S.G. West (1991), Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994), Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, IV. Washington, DC: Author.

Blaszczynski, A. P. (2002), “A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling”, Addiction 97, 487-499.

Brackett, M.A., J. D. Mayer, and R. M. Warner (2004), “Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behaviour”, Personality and Individual Differences 36, 1387-1402.

Campbell, C., J. Derevensky, E. Meerkamper, and J. Cutajar (2011), “Parents’ perceptions of adolescent gambling: A Canadian National Study”, Journal of Gambling Studies 25, 36-53.

Claessens, B.J.C., W. Van Eerde, C. G. Rutte, and R. A. Roe (2007), “A review of the time management literature”, Personnel Review 36, 255-276.

Claessens, B.J.C., W. Van Eerde, C. G. Rutte, and R. A. Roe (2004), “Planning behaviour and perceived control of time at work”, Journal of Organizational Behaviour 25, 937-950.

Clark, R., B. King, and D. Laylim (1990), Tin sin kuk (Heavenly Swindle). New South Wales: Asian Community Research Unit State Intelligence Group.

Collachi, J.L and J.L. Taber (1987), Gambling habits and attitudes among casino workers: A pilot study. Paper presented at the 7th Conference on Gambling and Risk-Taking, Reno, Nevada, 23 August.

Corney, R. and J. Davis (2010), “The attractions and risks of internet gambling for women: A qualitative study”, Journal of Gambling Issues 24, 121-139.

Crisp, B.R., S. A. Thomas, A. C. Jackson, S. Smith, J. Borrell, W. Ho, T. A. Holt, and N. Thomason, N. (2004), “Not the same: A comparison of female and male clients seeking treatment from problem gambling counseling services”, Journal of Gambling Studies 20, 283-299.

Derevensky, J. and R. Gupta (2006), “Measuring gambling problems amongst adolescents: Current status and future directions”, International Gambling Studies 6, 201-215.

Ellenbogen, S., R. Gupta, and J. L. Derevensky (2007), “A cross-cultural study of gambling behaviour among adolescents”, Journal of Gambling Studies 23, 25-39.

Erickson, L., C. A. Molina., G. T. Ladd., R. H. Pietrzak, and N. M. Petry (2005), “Problem and pathological gambling are associated with poorer mental and physical health in older adults”, International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 20, 754-759.

Friedland, N., G. Keinan, and Y. Regev (1992), “Controlling the uncontrollable: Effects of stress on illusory perceptions of controllability”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63, 923-931.

Gill, T., E. Dal Grande, and A. W. Taylor (2006), “Factors associated with gamblers: A population based cross-sectional study of south Australian adults”, Journal of Gambling Studies 22, 143-164.

Goodie, A.S. (2005), “The role of perceived control and overconfidence in pathological gambling”, Journal of Gambling Studies 21, 481-501.

Grant, J.E., and S. W. Kim (2002), “Gender differences in pathological gamblers seeking medication treatment”, Comprehensive Psychiatry 43, 56–62.

Hardoon, K.K., and J. L. Derevensky (2002), “Child and adolescent gambling behavior: Current knowledge”, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 7, 263-281.

Hing, N. and S. Gainsbury (2011), “Risky business: Gambling problems amongst gaming venue employees in Queensland, Australia”, Journal of Gambling Issues 25, 4-23.

Hing, N. and H. Breen (2008), “Risk and protective factors relating to gambling by employees of gaming venues”, International Gambling Studies 8, 1-23.

Hing, N. and S. Gainsbury (2011), “Risky business: Gambling problems amongst gaming venue employees in Queensland, Australia”, Journal of Gambling Issues 25, 4-23.

Hing, N. and H. Breen (2001), “Profiling lady luck: An empirical study of gambling and problem gambling amongst female club members”, Journal of Gambling Studies 17, 47- 69.

Ibanez, A., C. Blanco, P. Moreryra, and J. Saiz-Ruiz (2003), “Gender differences in pathological gambling”, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64, 295–301.

Karasek, R. (1998), “Demand/control model: A social, emotional, and physiological approach to stress risk and active behaviour development” in Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety (ed.) J. M. Stellman, M. McCann, L. Warshaw, and C. Dufresne, Geneva: International Labor Office

Kaur, I., N. S. Schutte, and E. B. Thorsteinsson (2006),“ Gambling control self-efficacy as a mediator of the effects of low emotional intelligence on problem gambling”, Journal of Gambling Studies 22, 405-411.

Korn, D.A. (2000), “Gambling expansion in Canada: Implications for health and social policy”, Canada Medical Association Journal 163, 61-64.

Ladd, G., and N. A. Petry (2003), “A comparison of pathological gamblers with and without substance abuse treatment histories”, Experimental and Clinical Psychophamacology 11, 202-209.

Lai, W. L. (2006), “Gambling and the older Chinese in Canada”, Journal of Gambling Studies 22, 121-141.

Lang, K.B. and M. Omori (2009), “Can demographic variables predict lottery and pari-mutuel losses: An empirical investigation”, Journal of Gambling Studies 25, 171-183.

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., M. L. Rohling, P. Rohde, and J. R. Seeley (2004), “The SOGS-RA vs. the MAGS-7: Prevalence estimates and classification congruence”, Journal of Gambling Studies 20, 259-281.

LaPlante, D.A., S. E. Nelson., R. A. LaBrie, and H. J. Shaffer (2006), “Men & women playing games: Gender and the gambling preferences of Iowa gambling treatment program participants”, Journal of Gambling Studies 22, 65-80.

Lee, T.K., R. A. LaBrie., H. S. Rhee, and H. J. Shaffer (2008), “A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems”, Occupational Medicine 58, 191-197.

Macan, T.H. (1994), “Time management: Test of a process model”, Journal of Applied Psychology 79, 381-391.

May, R.K., J. P. Whelan, T. A. Steenbergh, and A. W. Meyers (2003), “The gambling self-efficacy questionnaire: An initial psychometric evaluation”, Journal of Gambling Studies 19, 339-356.

Mayer, J.D., P. Salovey, and D. R. Caruso (2004), “Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications”, Psychological Inquiry 15, 197-215.

McNeilly, D.P., and W. J. Burke (2002), “Disposable time and disposable income: Problem casino gambling behavior in older adults”, Journal of Clinical Geropsychology 8, 75-85.

Momper, S.L., J. Delva, A. G. Grogang-Kaylor, N. Sanchez, and R. A. Volberg (2010), “The association of at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling with substance use, depression, and arrest history”, Journal of Gambling Issues 24, 7-32.

Nussbaum, D., K. Honarmand, R. Govoni, M. Kalahani-bargis, and S. Bass (2011), “An eight component decision-making model for problem gambling: A systems approach to stimulate integrative research”, Journal of Gambling Studies 27, 523-563.

Olason, D.T., K. J. Sigurdardottir and J. Smari (2006), “Prevalence estimates of gambling participation and problem gambling among 16–18-year-old students in Iceland: A comparison of the SOGS-RA and DSM-IV-MR-J”, Journal of Gambling Studies 22, 23-39.

Petry, N.M., and S. Mallya (2004), “Gambling participation and problems among employees at a university health center”, Journal of Gambling Studies 20, 155 –170.

Potenza, M.N., M. A. Steinberg, S. D. McLaughlin, R. Wu, B. J. Rounsaville, and S. S. O’Malley (2001), “Gender-related differences in the characteristics of problem gamblers using a gambling helpline”, American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 1500-1505.

Poulin, C. (2002), “An assessment of the validity and reliability of the SOGS-RA”, Journal of Gambling Studies 18, 67-93.

Ricketts, T. and A. Macaskill (2004), “Differentiating normal and problem gambling: A grounded theory approach”, Addiction Research and Theory 12, 77-87.

Riley, H. and N. S. Schutte (2003), “Low emotional intelligence as a predictor of substance-use problems”, Journal of Drug Education 33, 391-398.

Schutte, N.S., J. M. Malouff, L. E. Hall, D. J. Haggerty, J. T. Cooper, C. J. Golden, and L. Dornheim (1998), “Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence”, Personality and Individual Differences 25, 167-177.

Shaffer, H.J. and M. N. Hall (1996), “Estimating the prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: A quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature”, Journal of Gambling Studies 12, 193-214.

Shaffer, H.J. and M. N. Hall (2002), “The natural history of gambling and drinking problems among casino employees”, Journal of Social Psychology 142, 405-424.

Southwell, J., P. Boreham and W. Laffan (2008), “Problem gambling and the circumstances facing older people: A study of gaming machine players aged 60+ in licensed clubs”, Journal of Gambling Studies 24, 151-174.

Sparr, J.L. and S. Sonnentag (2008), “Fairness perceptions of supervisor feedback, LMX and employee well-being at work”, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 17, 198-225.

Trinidad, D.R. and C. A. Johnson (2002), “The association between emotional intelligence and early adolescent tobacco and alcohol use”, Personality and Individual Differences 32, 95-105.

Turner, N. E., A. Ialomiteanu., A.Paglia-Boak, and E. M. Adlaf (2011), “A typological study of gambling and substance use among adolescent students”, Journal of Gambling Studies 25, 88-107.

Turner, N.E., D. L. Preston, M. Saunders, S. McAvoy, and U. Jain (2009), “The relationship of problem gambling to criminal behaviour in a sample of Canadian male federal offenders”, Journal of Gambling Studies 25, 153-169.

Welte, J.W., G. M. Barnes, M. C. O. Tidwell, and J. H. Hoffman (2008), “The prevalence of problem gambling among U.S. adolescents and young adults: Results from national surveys”, Journal of Gambling Studies 24, 119-133.

Westermeyer, J., J. Canive, P. Thuras, and J. Thompson J, et al. (2008), “Mental health of non-gamblers versus ‘normal’ gamblers among American Indian Veterans: A community survey”, Journal of Gambling Studies 24, 193-216.

Winters, J., R. W. Clift, and D. G. Dutton (2004), “An exploratory study of emotional intelligence and domestic abuse”, Journal of Family Violence 19, 255-268.

Winters, K.C. and M. G. Kushner (2003), “Treatment issues pertaining to pathological gamblers with a comorbid disorder”, Journal of Gambling Studies 19, 261-277.

Wong, C.S. and K. S. Law (2002), “The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study”, Leadership Quarterly 13, 243-274.

Wu, A.M.S. and E. M. W. Wong (2008), “Disordered gambling among Chinese casino employees”, Journal of Gambling Studies 24, 207-217.

Young, M. and M. Stevens (2008), “Preview SOGS and CGPI: Parallel comparison on a diverse population”, Journal of Gambling Studies 24, 337-356.