Main Article Content

Pamel Wicker
Brian P Soebbing


Previous research has examined participation in betting in general, while sports bets have not been investigated specifically. The purpose of this study is to investigate the participation in sports betting and the mechanisms to place bets in Germany. Based on the economic household theory, it is assumed that participation in sports betting can be explained by a set of economic, socio-demographic, and lifestyle factors. A convenience sample of German citizens is drawn using an online survey (n=464). The results show that the typical online bettor is a male with high income, low education, and non-German nationality, who plays cards and poker during his leisure time, but does not regularly participate in sport. On the contrary, people betting via automats are predominantly female with low income and high education, who do not play poker, but practice sport in their leisure time. The findings have implications for policy makers.

Article Details



Albers, N. and Hübl, L. (1997). ‘Gambling Market and Individual Patterns of Gambling in Germany’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 13, pp. 125-144.

Becker, G. S. (1965). ‘A theory of the allocation of time’, The Economic Journal, Vol. 75, pp. 493-517.

Coups, E., Haddock, G. and Webley, P. (1998). ‘Correlates and Predictors of Lottery Play in United Kingdom’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 285-303.

Downward, P. (2007). ‘Exploring the economic choice to participate in sport: Results from the 2002 General Household Survey’, International Review of Applied Economics, Vol. 21, pp. 633-653.

Downward, P. and Rasciute, S. (2010). ‘The Relative Demands for Sports and Leisure in England’, European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 10, pp. 189-214.

Downward, P. and Riordan, J. (2007). ‘Social Interactions and the Demand for Sport: An Economic Analysis’, Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 25, pp. 518-537.

Farrell, L. and Walker, I. (1999). `The welfare effects of lotto: Evidence from the UK', Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 72, pp. 99-120.

Gill, T., Dal Grande, E. and Taylor, A.W. (2006). ‘Factors Associated with Gamblers: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study of South Australian Adults’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 22, pp. 143-164.

Hing, N. and Breen, H. (2001). ‘Profiling Lady Luck: An Empirical Study of Gambling and Problem Gambling Amongst Female Club Members’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 17, pp. 47-69.

Humphreys, B. R., Lee, Y. S., and Soebbing, B. P. (2010). ‘Consumer behaviour in lottery: the double hurdle approach and zeros in gambling data’, International Gambling Studies, Vol. 10, pp. 165-176.

Humphreys, B. R., Lee, Y. S., and Soebbing, B. P. (2011). ‘Modeling consumers’ participation in gambling markets and frequency of gambling’, The Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, Vol. 5, pp. 1-22.

Humphreys, B. R. and Ruseski, J. E. (2007). ‘Participation in Physical Activity and Government Spending on Parks and Recreation’, Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 25, pp. 538-552.

Humphreys, B. R. and Ruseski, J. E. (2010). The economic choice of participation and time spent in physical activity and sport in Canada (Working Paper No 2010-14). Department of Economics, Institute for Public Economics, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Johansson, A., Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., Odlaug, B. L. and Götestam, K .G. (2009). ‘Risk Factors for Problemativ Gambling: A Critical Literature Review’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 25, pp. 67-92.

Johnson, B. K., Whitehead, J. C., Mason, D. S. and Walker, G. J. (2007). ‘Willingness to Pay for Amateur Sport and Recreation Programs’, Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 25, pp. 553-564.

Kaare, P.-R., Mottus, R. and Konstabel, K. (2009). ‚Pathological Gambling in Estonia: Relationships with Personality, Self-Esteem, Emotional States and Cognitive Ability’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 25, pp. 377-390.

Lamb, C. W., Hair, J. F. and McDaniel, C. (1998). ‘Marketing’, South-Western College Publishing, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Lange, A. (2010). Wetten: Boris Becker, Rainer Calmund und die Förderung des Breitensports. Retrieved May 31st 2012 from http://ef-magazin.de/2010/06/25/2268-wetten-boris-becker-reiner-calmund-und-die-foerderung-des-breitensports

Langer, R. (2006). ‘Öffentliche Förderung des Sports: Eine ordnungspolitische Analyse‘,Duncker & Humblot, Berlin.

Lera-López, F. and Rapún-Gárate, M. (2005). ‘Sports participation versus consumer expenditure on sport: Different determinants and strategies in sports management’, European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 5, pp. 167-186.

Lera-López, F. and Rapún-Gárate, M. (2007). ‘The Demand for Sport: Sport Consumption and Participation Models’, Journal of Sport Management, Vol. 21, pp. 103-122.

MacDonald, M., McMullun, J. L. and Perrier, D. C. (2004). ‘Gambling Households in Canada’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 20, pp. 187-236.

Meffert, H. (2002). ‘Marketing’, Gabler, Wiesbaden.

Mullin, B. J., Hardy, S. and Sutton, W. A. (2007). ‘Sport Marketing’, Human Kinetics, Champaign, USA.

Plummer, J. T. (1974). 'The concept and application of lifestyle segmentation', Journal of Marketing, Vol. 38, pp. 333-337.

Schmid, M. and Börnsen, S. (2010). Glücksspielmarkt Deutschland 2015: Situation des Glücksspielmarktes in Deutschland. Retrieved March 18th 2011 from http://www.goldmedia.com/aktuelles/suche/info/article/ studiegluecksspielmarkt-deutschland-2015.html

Scott, F. and Garen, J. (1994). `Probability of purchase, amount of purchase, and the demographic incidence of the lottery tax', Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 54, pp. 121-143.

Shilbury, D., Westerbeek, H., Quick, S. and Funk, D. C. (2009). Strategic Sport Marketing, Crows Nest, NSW, Allen & Unwin.

Stevens, M. and Young, M. (2010). ‘Who Plays What? Participation Profiles in Chance Versus Skill-based Gambling’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 26, pp. 89-103.

Stranahan, H. A. and Borg, M. O. (1998). `Separating the decisions of lottery expenditures and participation: A truncated approach', Public Finance Review, Vol. 26, pp. 99-117.

Tan, A. K. G., Yen, S. T. and Nayga, R. M. Jr. (2001). ‘Socio-demographic determinants of gambling participation and expenditures: evidence from Malaysia’, International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 34, pp. 316-325.

Teuffel, F. (2011). Der Sport hofft auf höhere Einnahmen durch Wetten. Retrieved May 31st 2012 from http://www.tagesspiegel.de/sport/der-sport-hofft-auf-hoehere-einnahmen-durch-wetten/5782276.html

Thrane, C. (2001). ‘The Differentiation of Personal Sport Expenditures: The Norwegian Case’, International Journal of Sport Management, Vol. 2, pp. 237-251.

Trail, G. T. and James, J. D. (2001). 'The motivation scale for sport consumption: A comparison of psychometric properties with other sport motivation scales', Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 24, pp. 108-127.

Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek W. F., Tidwell, M.-C. and Parker, J. (2002). ‘Gambling Participation in U.S.: Results form a National Survey’, Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 18, pp. 313-337.

White, H. (1980). ‘A heteroskedastic-consistent covariance matrix estimator and a direct test of heteroskedasticity’, Econometrica, Vol. 48, pp. 817-838.

Wicker, P., Breuer, C. and Pawlowski, T. (2009). ‘Promoting Sport for All to Age-specific Target Groups: the Impact of Sport Infrastructure’, European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 9, pp. 103-118.

Wicker, P., Breuer, C. and Pawlowski, T. (2010). ‘Are sports club members big spenders? Findings from sport specific analyses in Germany’, Sport Management Review, Vol. 13, pp. 214-224.

Wicker, P., Hallmann, K. and Breuer, C. (2012). ‘Micro and macro level determinants of sport participation’, Sport, Business, Management: an International Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 51-68.

Worthington, A. C., Brown, K., Crawford, M. and Pickernell, D. (2007). ‘Gambling participation in Australia: findings from the national household expenditure survey', Review of Economics of the Household, Vol. 5, pp. 209-21.